A. View of humans:
B. What should psychology be?
C. Major founders: J. B. Watson & B. F. Skinner argue for a "thoughtless" approach on for two basic reasons:
Both Watson and Skinner agree that we should study people as though they didn't have a mind, as though people's heads were empty (the "empty organism" or "black box" approach).
- the limits of science
- the importance of behavior
Analogies to illustrate how one can control behavior while acting like "insides" are empty.
Rather than focus on the mind, both Skinner and Watson wanted scientists to focus on the way people learn connections between observable events (stimuli) and behavior (responses).
However, the two emphasized different types of behavior and different types of connections.
Watson's Classical Conditioning Skinner's Operant Conditioning Pavlov's dog Skinner's rat involuntary physiological reactions voluntary actions reflexive (S-R) active (R-S)
Classical conditioning involves associating a neutral stimulus with a stimulus that triggers a reflex. Eventually, the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus that triggers a response. Almost anything can be a CS. Play around with creating your own conditioned stimulus by mixing and matching from the boxes below.
Basic principle of Skinner's operant conditioning-- the law of effect (definition)
Three simple, but effective, laws of operant behavior.
1. Reinforcement works
See example of positive reinforcement
Do an exercise to test your understanding of positive reinforcement.
See negative reinforcement in action
2. Immediate reinforcement is more effective than delayed reinforcement.
3. Punishment is not as effective at stopping behavior as reinforcement is at strengthening behavior.
Compare two ways of stopping behavior.
See how the principles of operant conditioning apply to the work world.
D. Problems/Common Objections:
1. Do behaviorists put too much emphasis on the environment?E. More recent developments, social-cognitive theories including
(Is "S" the only thing that affects "R"?)
2. Is their view too simple and narrow because it doesn't consider thoughts?
(Does "S"cause "R"?)
Evidence that thoughts are over-rated as causes of behavior:
Evidence that thoughts are important:
Bandura's social learning theory:
F. Applications of the behavioral approach to therapy
(Changing behavior through learning)
1. Using classical conditioning to change physiological reactions (by changing S-->R associations):
a. Systematic desensitization, also called counter-conditioning
b. Aversive conditioning:
- How it differs from punishment
2. Skinner's operant [instrumental]conditioning to change
your voluntary actions
(by changing R-->S associations).
1. Controlling yourself
2. Controlling others
In addition, you should review this concept map and you should try this applied behaviorism project.
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